Finding interesting Japanese words using C#

My awesome wife studies Japanese. Recently she showed me a challenge a friend of ours came up with. But first some basic (and over-simplistic) concepts:

Background

(skip if you know anything about Japanese)

  • Japanese has two kinds of symbols:
    kana – which are more like letters (we don’t really care about these at this post). For example: ね, こ, だ.
    kanji – A group of over 12,000 symbols representing words. For example: 猫.
  • Kanjis are made of smaller parts are called radicals. For example, the kanji 災 (disaster) is made of two radicals: 巛 (river) and 火 (fire).
  • Words are made from several kanjis. For example, the word 火山 means volcano and is made from two kanjis: 火 (fire) and 山 (mountain). Kana also has part in words, but again, not the subject here.
  • When it comes to Unicode, each kanji has its own character. A word is a string made of several characters.

Anyway,

The challenge:

Can you think of Japanese words like 妊婦, 爆煙, or 価値 where the left radical is identical in both kanjis?

For example, with the radicals highlighted:

I hardly know any Japanese, but I wondered if I could write a program that can find such words…

Finding the data.

I took the data from a Firefox add-on called Rikaichan.

Rikaichan contains information on words, so we’ll start with that:

I’ve download the Japanese-English Dictionary, which is a separate add-on, and found that Rikaichan has all word in a sqlite database. Using a System.Data.SQLite we quickly connect to it:

var builder = new SQLiteConnectionStringBuilder();
builder.DataSource = _dictionaryPath;
using (var connection = new SQLiteConnection(builder.ToString()))
{
    connection.Open();
    /// ...
}

We can get the schema using select * from sqlite_master;, which reveals just a single table (and two indices):

CREATE TABLE dict (kanji TEXT, kana TEXT, entry TEXT)

We’ve got a list of 236,329 words, their kanji and kana representations, and their English meaning. This is nice, but there is still no data about the radicals…

Kanji structure and radicals

Rikaichan does have that data: when standing over a kanji it shows a lot more information:

We have three things that are interesting here:

  • One radical on top – Some sort of “main” radical. I’m not sure how Rikaichan crowns that radical.
  • List of all radicals.
  • SKIP pattern – we’ll get to that soon.

Poking a little deeper, we can see this data in the main add-on, not the English dictionary (which is unexcpected, because each kanji has its meaning in English).

There is a file called kanji.dat, with this structure:

災|B86 G5 S7 F976 N1448 V3400 H2206 DK1400 L167 IN1335 E680 P2-3-4 I4d3.3 Yzai1|サイ わざわ.い|||disaster, calamity, woe, curse, evil
灾|B86 S7 P2-3-4 Yzai1|サイ わざわ.い|||calamity, disaster, catastrophe
炁|B86 S8 P2-4-4 Yqi4|キ ケ いき|||breath, air, steam, gas, weather, used in Taoist charms
炅|B86 S8 P2-4-4 Yjiong3 Ygui4|ケイ キョウ エイ ヨウ あらわ.れる|||brilliance

So this is promising. For 災, B86 correlated with “radical 86” from the screenshot, and there’s the English meaning (but we don’t need that). There isn’t any information on the other radicals, and nothing about their positions…
One thing that did stuck out is P2-3-4. Looking at the image we can see this is called SKIP pattern – and it looks less opaque than the other kanji indices. A quick search demystifies it. The first digit can have only four options:

  • 1 – The kanji structure is left-and-right, like 炆, 炒, or 炬.
  • 2 – The kanji structure is top-and-bottom, like 災, 灾, or 粂.
  • 3 – The kanji structure is enclosing-and-contained, like 仄, 兦, or 冃.
  • 4 – The kanji structure is “other”, like 冉, 戍, or 火.

Great! Now it looks like we have enough data to find our words: We have a list of words, list of kanjis, “main” radical in each kanji, and the general structure of the kanji. It looks like the “main” radical is (mostly) the one on the left, and that’s good enough.

We can parse this file using a small regular expression:

^(?<Kanji>\w|[^|]{2})\|       # \w doesn't match 𠀋 - surrogate pair
B(?<RadicalIndex>\d+)\b
(?=[^|]*\bS(?<StrokeCount>\d+\b))?
(?=[^|]*\bP
    (?<SkipPattern>(?<SkipPatternType>[1-4])-\d+-\d+\b)
)?

Here’s a pie chart with the distribution of the different kanji structure. The majority of them is of the left-and-right kind, so we will probably find a lot of words:

pie chart

With 64% of kanjis in the 1 category, you have to wonder if SKIP pattern is a good way to organize kanjis.

What are the Radicals

We’ve extracted the “main” radical for each kanji, bu we are still missing something. Some kanjis are also radicals, and according to our data, they are their own radicals. For example:

Here is the source data from kanji.dat

巛|B47 S3 V1527 H9 P1-1-2 Ychuan1|セン かわ||まがりがわ|curving river radical (no.47)
川|B47 G1 S3 F181 N1447 V1526 H6 DK1 L127 IN33 E48 P1-1-2 I0a3.2 Ychuan1|セン かわ|か こ さわ|さんぼんがわ|stream, river, river or 3-stroke river radical (no. 47)
[...]
順|B47 G4 S12 F779 N1450 V6619 H18 DK9 L129 IN769 E506 P1-1-11 I9a3.2 Yshun4|ジュン|あや あり おき おさむ しげ したがう とし なお のぶ のり まさ むね もと ゆき よし より||obey, order, turn, right, docility, occasion

This is bad news, because it would introduce false positives – what if there was a word like 順巛? (not a real word, by the way).

Luckily, the Rikaichan developers are really good at naming files, and we can find that data on radicals.dat:

巛	川	まがりがわ	crooked river	侃釧訓慌荒災拶州洲酬巡順疏馴流琉硫剄勁卅廱徑惱旒梳毓獵瑙痙癰碯經緇脛腦臘莖蔬輕輜逕醯錙鑞頸駲鯔
工		たくみ	craft	恐空功巧控攻江紅腔貢項鴻佐嵯左差瑳試式拭尋惰楕築筑虹杢倥儔剄勁啌嗟噐噬墮壽嵳巫弑徑惘扛搓擣杠檮椌槓槎橢汞濤潯熕畭疇痙矼磋穩筮箜籌經縒缸肛脛隋膸莖蕁蛩覡訌誣跫蹉躊軾輕逕隨鑄隱靈鞏頸髓鵐
己	已巳	おのれ	snake	改鞄巻忌紀記起倦圏捲巷港撰選遷巽巴配妃包庖抱泡砲胞飽僊囘匏咆垉惓杞枹炮煕熈爬疱皰祀綣苞萢蚫蜷袍鉋雹靤韆饌髱鮑麭熙
巾		はば	cloth	柿希帰稀錦策刷刺姉市師獅常飾帥制製席匝掃帯滞凧帖帳吊帝締諦蹄逓肺幡帆婦布怖幅幣弊蔽瞥帽幌幕棉綿佩冪唏啻啼嫦帋帚帙帑帛帶帷幄幃幀幎幗幔幟幢幤幇掣敝斃旆晞暼柬棘棗楴楝欷歸沛滯珮箍箒篩緜羃菷蒂蓆蔕乕蟐衞閙霈鬧鯑鰤

Surrogate Pairs

As seen above in the regular expression, it is not trivial to split a string into Unicode characters. you can not assume one Char is one Unicode character. For example, "𠀋" is a surrogate pair, made of two Chars.

It is simple enough to split a string to Unicode character points:

public static IEnumerable<string> SplitBySurrogatePairs(this string str)
{
    var enumerator = StringInfo.GetTextElementEnumerator(str);
    while (enumerator.MoveNext())
    {
        yield return enumerator.Current as string;
    }
}

Final code

We can finally write the query to find our words:

var w = from word in _words.Words
        let chars = word.Characters
        where chars.Count >= 2
        where chars.All(_kanji.IsKanji)
        let kanjis = chars.Select(_kanji.GetKanji)
        where kanjis.All(k => k.SkipPatternType == SkipPatternType.LeftRight)
        where kanjis.All(k => !_radicals.IsRadical(k.Kanji))
        let firstKanjiRadicalIndex = kanjis.First().MainRadicalIndex
        where kanjis.All(k => k.MainRadicalIndex == firstKanjiRadicalIndex)
        orderby kanjis.Count() descending
        select word;

Result

We’ve found 1364 such words. Naturally, some of them are quite nice:

  • 喋喋喃喃 – holding an intimate, long-winded conversation in whispers
  • 津津浦浦 – all over the country; every nook and cranny of the land; throughout the land.
  • 流汗淋漓 – profuse perspiration, dripping with sweat.
  • 経緯線網 – graticule
  • 縷縷綿綿 – going on and on in tedious detail
  • 蚯蚓蜥蜴 – worm lizard, amphisbaenian

Source Code

You can see the whole code on GitHub: https://github.com/kobi/JapaneseWords

Asp.Net MVC – Nicer display for boolean values

How can we get Asp.Net MVC to display boolean values better?

Lets have a simple model:

public class Options
{
    [Display(Name = "Flux")]
    public bool EnableFlux { get; set; }

    [Display(Name = "Advanced Options")]
    public bool ShowAdvancedOptions { get; set; }

    [Display(Name = "Do you eat well?")]
    public bool UserEatsWell { get; set; }
}

The default display template isn’t great – it just displays disabled checkboxes:

<h4>Display:</h4>
@Html.LabelFor(m => m.ShowAdvancedOptions)
@Html.DisplayFor(m => m.ShowAdvancedOptions)

@Html.LabelFor(m => m.EnableFlux)
@Html.DisplayFor(m => m.EnableFlux)

@Html.LabelFor(m => m.UserEatsWell)
@Html.DisplayFor(m => m.UserEatsWell)

The result isn’t too pretty:
Mvc Booleans - default

Continue reading

Solving mazes using regular expressions

Can the .Net regex engine find its way through a maze?

A maze?

We have a text based maze. We can walk on spaces, and need to find a path from the start point (S) to the end point (E). Anything else in a wall.

Examples:

██████████
█S█      █
█ █ █ █ ██
█   █ █ E█
██████████
███████████████████████████S█████████████
█         █ █           █ █   █     █   █
█ ███ ███ █ █ ███████ █ █ ███ █ ███ ███ █
█ █ █ █     █ █   █   █ █   █   █ █ █   █
█ █ █ █████ █ █ ███ ███ ███ █████ █ █ ███
█ █ █     █ █   █   █   █     █ █   █   █
█ █ █████ █████ █ █████ █ ███ █ █ █████ █
█ █     █     █ █     █   █   █ █       █
█ █████ █████ █ █████ █████ ███ ███████ █
█       █   █ █   █ █ █           █   █ █
█████ ███ █ █ ███ █ █ █████████ ███ █ █ █
█ █   █   █     █   █     █     █   █   █
█ █ ███ ███████████ █████ █ █████ ███████
█ █   █           █ █   █ █   █ █ █     █
█ ███ ███████████ █ ███ █ ███ █ █ █████ █
█   █     █ █     █     █   █   █ █     █
█ █ █████ █ █ █████████ ███ █████ █ █████
█ █   █   █ █   █       █   █     █     █
█ █ ███ ███ ███ █ ███████ ███ █████████ █
█ █           █         █               █
█████████████████████E███████████████████
█S█
█ ███████
█       █
███████ █
      █ █
      █E█

Strategy

We are going to implement the following algorithm for solving a maze:

  1. Find the start point.
  2. Pick a new position to go to. We have four choices: right, left, down, or up.
    The new position is invalid if it crosses our current path through the maze (the path cannot have loops).
  3. If we reached the End, we are done.
  4. If we cannot advance, undo the last choice and make a new one.
  5. Go to step 2.

As you may have noticed, this is backtracking: we’re making choices and reverting them when we know they were wrong.

Continue reading

Finding intersecting ranges – Small variant using Expression.Constant

Last time we saw how use expression to find intersecting ranges. Here’s another useful overload of the same method – it is probably common to have one of ranges on the entity object (for example – the employee’s vacation), while knowing the other (for example the week of training). In that case, we can revise the implementation a little to use to concrete values:

public static Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>>
    RangesIntersect<TEntity, TComparable>(TComparable from, TComparable to,
                                        Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRangeStart,
                                        Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRangeEnd)
{
    ParameterExpression newLambdaParameter = Expression.Parameter(typeof(TEntity));
    var rewireStart = RewireLambdaExpression(getEntityRangeStart, newLambdaParameter);
    var rewireEnd = RewireLambdaExpression(getEntityRangeEnd, newLambdaParameter);

    return Expression.Lambda<Func<TEntity, bool>>(
        RangesIntersect(Expression.Constant(from), Expression.Constant(to),
                        rewireStart.Body, rewireEnd.Body),
        newLambdaParameter);
}

public static IQueryable<TEntity> WhereRangesIntersect<TEntity, TComparable>(
    this IQueryable<TEntity> query,
    TComparable range1Start,
    TComparable range1End,
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2Start,
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2End)
{
    return query.Where(RangesIntersect(range1Start, range1End, getEntityRange2Start, getEntityRange2End));
}

Example Use

using (VacationsEntities model = new VacationsEntities())
{
    var trainingStart = new DateTime(2013, 1, 1);
    var trainingEnd = trainingStart.AddDays(7);
    var query = model.Vacations
                     .WhereRangesIntersect(trainingStart,
                                           trainingEnd,
                                           v => v.Start.Value,
                                           v => v.End.Value);
    // ...

Resulting SQL

The Entity Framework chose to convert the two Expression.Constants to date literals instead of using SQL parameters:

SELECT 
[Extent1].[VacationId] AS [VacationId], 
[Extent1].[EmployeeId] AS [EmployeeId], 
[Extent1].[Start] AS [Start], 
[Extent1].[End] AS [End]
FROM [Vacations] AS [Extent1]
WHERE (convert(datetime, '2013-01-01 00:00:00.000', 121) <= [Extent1].[End]) AND
      ([Extent1].[Start] <= convert(datetime, '2013-01-08 00:00:00.000', 121))

Finding intersecting ranges using expression trees and the Entity Framework

Background

We’re using the Entity Framework as ORM. We have entities of Employee and Vacation. Employees may go on vacations, that’s fair. A vacation is a range of dates: start and end.
Our company will hold a week long safety training, so we need to find all employees who will go on vacation and will miss any day of the training.

Or, more generally – we have two ranges, and we want to find only the items where the ranges intersect.

Sounds simple enough but as it turns out, there is no immediate way of creating such a query. Naturally, we are more interested in a general solution, not a where clause that we would have to duplicate each time.

Logic

Given two ranges, we want to return true if the ranges intersect. A simple implementation would be:

bool intersecting = (range1Start <= range2End) &&
                    (range2Start <= range1End);

<= means that we treat our ranges as inclusive at both ends – {1,2} and {2,3} would intersect at the point 2. < would be exclusive at any end or both.

Implementation

The Entity Framework works by translating expression trees into SQL. We can’t write regular code like we would with Linq to Objects, that wouldn’t work: the Entity Framework only understands Expressions:

/// <summary>
/// Get two ranges represented by four expressions, and check if they intersect. Inclusive on both ends,
/// and allow intersection in a single point.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="range1From">Start value of the first range</param>
/// <param name="range1To">End value of the first range</param>
/// <param name="range2From">Start value of the second range</param>
/// <param name="range2To">End value of the second range</param>
/// <returns>A BinaryExpression that checks if the two ranges intersect.</returns>
public static BinaryExpression RangesIntersect(Expression range1From, Expression range1To,
                                               Expression range2From, Expression range2To)
{
    return(Expression.AndAlso(
        Expression.LessThanOrEqual(range1From, range2To),
        Expression.LessThanOrEqual(range2From, range1To)
        ));
}

Not That Easy

Next, we want to use the Queryable.Where overload that takes a predicate of type Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>.
My first attempt, which was wrong, was:

public static Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> RangesIntersect<TEntity, TComparable>(
                        Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange1Start,
                        Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange1End,
                        Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2Start,
                        Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2End)
{
    (!) Incorrect code
    return Expression.Lambda<Func<TEntity, bool>>(
        RangesIntersect(getEntityRange1Start.Body, getEntityRange1End.Body,
                        getEntityRange2Start.Body, getEntityRange2End.Body),
        getEntityRange1Start.Parameters);
}

Let’s make a quick test to see how it doesn’t work:

var trainingStart = new DateTime(2013, 1, 1);
var trainingEnd = trainingStart.AddDays(7);
var vacation = new Vacation {Start = new DateTime(2013, 1, 5),
                             End = new DateTime(2013, 1, 10)};

var intersectExpression = RangeIntersection
      .RangesIntersect<Vacation, DateTime?>(
             v => trainingStart, v => trainingEnd,
             v => v.Start, v => v.End);
bool intersect = intersectExpression.Compile()(vacation);

Exception:

variable ‘v’ of type ‘Vacation’ referenced from scope ”, but it is not defined

Had we used the Expression in Linq, we would have gotten the exception:

The parameter ‘v’ was not bound in the specified LINQ to Entities query expression.

This fails because the parameter of the first Expression (which used in getEntityRange1Start.Parameters) is not present in the other three Expressions. It looks like all of them should be using the same v, but they are independent.
To get it to work we need all four expressions to use the same parameter. A quick search finds the handy ExpressionSubstitute class, by Marc Gravell:

/// <summary>
/// Visit an Expression, and replace one sub expression with another.
/// </summary>
/// <remarks> http://stackoverflow.com/a/8611105/7586 </remarks>
class ExpressionSubstitute : ExpressionVisitor
{
    public readonly Expression from, to;
    public ExpressionSubstitute(Expression from, Expression to)
    {
        this.from = from;
        this.to = to;
    }
    public override Expression Visit(Expression node)
    {
        if (node == from) return to;
        return base.Visit(node);
    }
}

Now we can easily change the expressions’ parameters:

public static Expression<Func<TEntity, TReturnType>> RewireLambdaExpression<TEntity, TReturnType>(
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TReturnType>> expression,
    ParameterExpression newLambdaParameter)
{
    var newExp = new ExpressionSubstitute(expression.Parameters.Single(), newLambdaParameter).Visit(expression);
    return (Expression<Func<TEntity, TReturnType>>)newExp;
}

Correct Code

We can finally rewire the expressions, and write the extension method:

public static Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> RangesIntersect<TEntity, TComparable>(
                                Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange1Start,
                                Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange1End,
                                Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2Start,
                                Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2End)
{
    ParameterExpression newLambdaParameter = Expression.Parameter(typeof(TEntity));
    var rewireStart1 = RewireLambdaExpression(getEntityRange1Start, newLambdaParameter);
    var rewireEnd1 = RewireLambdaExpression(getEntityRange1End, newLambdaParameter);
    var rewireStart2 = RewireLambdaExpression(getEntityRange2Start, newLambdaParameter);
    var rewireEnd2 = RewireLambdaExpression(getEntityRange2End, newLambdaParameter);

    return Expression.Lambda<Func<TEntity, bool>>(RangesIntersect(rewireStart1.Body, rewireEnd1.Body,
                                                                  rewireStart2.Body, rewireEnd2.Body),
                                                  newLambdaParameter);
}

public static IQueryable<TEntity> WhereRangesIntersect<TEntity, TComparable>(
    this IQueryable<TEntity> query,
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange1Start,
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange1End,
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2Start,
    Expression<Func<TEntity, TComparable>> getEntityRange2End)
{
    return query.Where(RangesIntersect(getEntityRange1Start, getEntityRange1End,
                                       getEntityRange2Start, getEntityRange2End));
}

Result

Now we can write Linq queries that look like:

using (VacationsEntities model = new VacationsEntities())
{
    var trainingStart = new DateTime(2013, 1, 1);
    var trainingEnd = trainingStart.AddDays(7);
    var query = model.Vacations
        .WhereRangesIntersect(v => trainingStart, v => trainingEnd,
                              v => v.Start, v => v.End);
    // ...
}

We can also look at the resulting SQL, using ((ObjectQuery<Vacation>)query).ToTraceString():

SELECT 
[Extent1].[VacationId] AS [VacationId], 
[Extent1].[EmployeeId] AS [EmployeeId], 
[Extent1].[Start] AS [Start], 
[Extent1].[End] AS [End]
FROM [Vacations] AS [Extent1]
WHERE (@p__linq__0 <= [Extent1].[End]) AND
      ([Extent1].[Start] <= @p__linq__1)

The expression also works with OData. For example, using Stack Overflow’s endpoint:

var uri = new Uri("http://data.stackexchange.com/stackoverflow/atom");
var entities = new StackOverflowOData.Entities(uri);
var trainingStart = new DateTime(2012, 3, 15);
var trainingEnd = trainingStart.AddDays(7);

var q = entities.Posts
    .WhereRangesIntersect(p => p.CreationDate.Value, p => p.ClosedDate.Value,
                          p => trainingStart, p => trainingEnd).Take(10);

The url filter will be (using q.ToString()):

&$filter=(CreationDate le datetime'2012-03-22T00:00:00') and
         (datetime'2012-03-15T00:00:00' le ClosedDate)

To me, this is has been a nice exercise, and finally gave me a reason to play with expression trees.

See Also

Jenkins CI – Error 500 When Opening Views

After messing with Jenkins a little (upgrade and downgrade), all views were broken (views are the tabs on top that filer jobs). When clicking on them we got a Server Error (500).

The log showed several errors:

Caused by: java.lang.NullPointerException: Cannot invoke method isEmpty() on null object
    at org.codehaus.groovy.runtime.NullObject.invokeMethod(NullObject.java:77)
    at org.codehaus.groovy.runtime.callsite.PogoMetaClassSite.call(PogoMetaClassSite.java:45)
    ...
Caused by: org.apache.commons.jelly.JellyTagException: jar:file:/C:/Program Files (x86)/Jenkins/war/WEB-INF/lib/jenkins-core-1.482.jar!/hudson/model/View/index.jelly:44:43:  Cannot invoke method isEmpty() on null object
    at org.apache.commons.jelly.impl.TagScript.handleException(TagScript.java:716)
    at org.apache.commons.jelly.impl.TagScript.run(TagScript.java:282)
    ...
27/05/2013 16:10:50 org.kohsuke.stapler.compression.CompressionFilter reportException
WARNING: Untrapped servlet exception
javax.servlet.ServletException: org.apache.commons.jelly.JellyTagException: jar:file:/C:/Program Files (x86)/Jenkins/war/WEB-INF/lib/jenkins-core-1.482.jar!/hudson/model/View/index.jelly:44:43:  Cannot invoke method isEmpty() on null object
    at org.kohsuke.stapler.jelly.JellyClassTearOff.serveIndexJelly(JellyClassTearOff.java:112)
    ...

I don’t know exactly what caused it, but I was able to solve the error. The views are saved in Jenkins’s main configuration file, config.xml. (on our server that was C:\Program Files (x86)\Jenkins\config.xml)

First, back up this file.

The views should still be intact in the file. I was able to create another view.
A working view should look like this:

<listView>
  <owner class="hudson" reference="../../.."/>
  <name>Working View</name>
  <filterExecutors>false</filterExecutors>
  <filterQueue>false</filterQueue>
  <properties class="hudson.model.View$PropertyList"/>
  <jobNames class="tree-set">
	<comparator class="hudson.util.CaseInsensitiveComparator"/>
	<string>Job Name 1</string>
	<string>Job Name 2</string>
  </jobNames>
  <jobFilters/>
  <columns>
	<hudson.views.StatusColumn/>
	<hudson.views.WeatherColumn/>
	<hudson.views.JobColumn/>
	<hudson.views.LastSuccessColumn/>
	<hudson.views.LastFailureColumn/>
	<hudson.views.LastDurationColumn/>
	<hudson.views.BuildButtonColumn/>
  </columns>
</listView>

On line 7 we have the list of all job names. On a broken view, the class attribute was missing:

<jobNames>
    <comparator class="hudson.util.CaseInsensitiveComparator"/>
    <string>Job Name 1</string>
    <string>Job Name 2</string>
</jobNames>

Add class="tree-set" to the jobNames element to correct the configuration file.

“Reload Configuration from Disk” didn’t work for me – I had to take the service down, change the XML, save it, and start the service again.
After that everything worked.

Warning

Jenkins might delete all jobs in the view (the <string>Job Name 1</string> elements) – that is why we backed up the file. It should be easy to restore these, or simply select the jobs again once the view is working.

Asp.Net MVC – Avoid resetting the form authentication cookie timeout for a request

I have a site that is using Asp.Net’s forms authentication, with sliding expiration. A user may log in and make some operations (requests), and after 30 minutes (for example) from her last action, she will be logged out.
However – what if I want to make a request that will not reset that timeout? For example, I may want to send an Ajax request for tracking the user, periodically check for notices, etc. How can I prevent that “system” request from extending the authentication cookie?

As it turns out, there is a simple way of doing that, once you understand exactly how sliding authentication works in asp.net.

I won’t go into too much detail, but the basic mechanism is:

  • After authentication, an authentication cookie is sent to the user, with expiration time of 30 minutes (or whatever you defined).
  • The authentication cookie contains an encrypted data, which is really the authentication ticket.
  • The ticket contains information related to the authentication, and the expiration time. Note the browsers don’t send the cookies’ expiration times when making a request, so that data is included in the authentication ticket instead.
  • For actions the user does in the first half of the expiration period (that is, the first 15 minutes), nothing happens. The authentication timeout does not reset.
  • On requests that happen on the second half of the expiration period, the timeout is reset, and the expiration is extended by another 30 minutes.

So, there is a chance our response will contain a new auth cookie, with extended expiration time. If the user is inactive, and our periodical action is the only thing happening, one of the responses will contain a new cookie, and the user will be logged in indefinitely.

So, how an we prevent that? This is as simple as removing the cookie from the response:

///<summary>
/// Prevent the auth cookie from being reset for this action, allows you to
/// have requests that do not reset the login timeout.
/// </summary>
public class DoNotResetAuthCookieAttribute : ActionFilterAttribute
{
    public override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContext)
    {
        var response = filterContext.HttpContext.Response;
        response.Cookies.Remove(FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName);
    }
}

Use of this action is pretty simple:

[DoNotResetAuthCookie]
public ActionResult SampleAction()
{
    return Json(new {Request.IsAuthenticated, CookiesCount = Response.Cookies.Count});
}

Notes

  • You may also want to disable caching for such an action, using OutputCacheAttribute
    [OutputCache(NoStore = true, Duration = 0)]
    
  • I have some more defensive code in production (some more null checks), but this should be ok. Specifically, you don’t have to test the cookie is actually there to delete it: HttpCookieCollection.Remove
  • I used this to check if the user is still logged in, and get the time she will (presumably) log out – I needed something that works in an Ajax application, with many possible tabs or windows open.

See Also

.Net Regular Expressions – Finding Decimal Numbers that are Divisible by Three

It’s very easy to check a decimal number is divisible by three using a simple DFA with 3 states.

A regex, therefor, is possible, but not too pretty (source):

(?:[0369]|
[147](?:[0369]*[147][0369]*[258])*(?:[0369]*[258]|[0369]*[147][0369]*[147])|
[258](?:[0369]*[258][0369]*[147])*(?:[0369]*[147]|[0369]*[258][0369]*[258])
)*

Example: http://www.rubular.com/r/ZcRDblHg8M

Here’s another approach, using .Net’s stacks as a simple counter:

\b
(?>             # No regrets - don't backtrack on if/else decisions.
    [0369]      # = 0 (mod 3)
    |
    [147]       # = 1 (mod 3)
    (?:         # if possible pop 2, else push 1
        (?<-Sum>){2}|(?<Sum>)
    )
    |
    [258]       # = 2 (mod 3)
    (?:         # if possible pop 1, else push 2
        (?<-Sum>)|(?<Sum>){2}
    )
)+
\b
(?(Sum)(?!)) # Assert nothing's left in the stack

Why? Well, I was bored while I shaved. Luckily, this regex is simple enough for Mono. Working example: http://ideone.com/Yp6Ti (ok, maybe not, mono is missing 111222)

.Net Regular Expressions – Using the Stack State to Understand Numeric Values

It is common knowledge that regular expressions should handle text and not values. A recent stack overflow question got me thinking though – it is possible to use .Net regular expressions to understand numbers or other values while matching the pattern?
Regular expressions can be used to perform numerical tasks, but that is usually when working in unary base.
It turns out this is possible – .Net keeps a stack for every capture of every matched group while matching the pattern, and that state is available for use while matching. The idea is simple: we can represent numbers as depth of the stack, so the number 0 is an empty stack, 6 is a stack with 6 captures, and so forth.

(?>
    (?=[0-9])   # optimization - don't multiply when we don't have a digit.
    # multiply the content of the stack by 10
    # for each item on Stack, push 10 items to a Temp stack.
    (?(Decimal)
        (?<-Decimal>
            (?<Temp>){10}
        )
    ){100000}
    (?(Decimal)(?!))
    # Push all items from Temp back to Stack
    (?(Temp)
        (?<-Temp>
            (?<Decimal>)
        )
    ){100000}
    (?(Temp)(?!))
    # match a digit, and push its value to the stack
    (?:
        0                 |
        1 (?<Decimal>)    |
        2 (?<Decimal>){2} |
        3 (?<Decimal>){3} |
        4 (?<Decimal>){4} |
        5 (?<Decimal>){5} |
        6 (?<Decimal>){6} |
        7 (?<Decimal>){7} |
        8 (?<Decimal>){8} |
        9 (?<Decimal>){9}
    )
)+

The idea is very simple: when we see a new digit, we multiply the depth of the stack by 10, and add the number represented by the new digit. The value of the number can be verified using:

match.Groups["Decimal"].Captures.Count

A curious bit here is the use of the loop to copy stacks:

(?(Temp)
    (?<-Temp>
        (?<Decimal>)
    )
){100000}

I’d expect this to be enough:

(?<-Temp> (?<Decimal>) )*
(?(Temp)(?!))

It turns out the above loop is only executed once, and the condition always fails. It is probably a documented optimization, I’ll look more into that later. As a proof of concept, the workaround should do.

It is even possible to perform basic arithmetic operations on these stacks such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and such from within the regex engine, but that may be a few extra steps too many.
It should go without saying, of course, that regex isn’t a good option here – this is for recreational use. The run time and complexity are far from ideal.

See also:

SharePoint 2010 – Adding Created, CreatedBy, Modified and ModifiedBy to SPMetal’s Generated Classes

By default, SPMetal doesn’t map the Created, Created By, Modified and Modified By fields to it’s generated objects. To remind SPMetal they exist you can easily add them to your parameters XML file (using /parameters:myfile.xml at command line). Of course. You can selectively add where you need it, or add it to Item:

<Column Name="Editor" Member="CreatedBy" />
<Column Name="Author" Member="ModifiedBy" />
<Column Name="Created" />
<Column Name="Modified" />

Also, here’s a template of the SPMetal command:

"%programfiles%\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Web Server Extensions\14\BIN\spmetal.exe" "/web:http://myserver/someweb/foo" /language:csharp /code:SPFoo.cs /serialization:unidirectional /parameters:FooSPMetalParameters.xml

See also: